Как узнать, где рыть колодец?

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Как узнать, где рыть колодец?

Для рытья колодцев следует выбирать места низкие, например низину с лесочком и кустарником. Воду можно добыть не только в низинах, но и около них. Вода будет и в местах с небольшими бугорками и осокой, где раньше стояло болото, а затем высохло. В речных долинах условия для добывания подземных вод особенно благоприятны.

Нелишне запомнить народные приметы, указывающие на близость водоносного горизонта. Они связаны с влаголюбивой растительностью, окрашенной яркой и сочной зеленью. Замечено, что такие растения, как лапчатка гусиная, болиголов, наперстянка, осенний безвременник, мать-и-мачеха, конский щавель, камыш, осока, лучше всего растут там, где грунтовые воды располагаются близко к поверхности земли. Их вполне можно назвать растениями-индикаторами.

Народом же подмечено, что яблони и вишни плохо растут в местах, где грунтовые воды близко подходят к поверхности земли. В то же время дуб, ольха, верба, ива, крапива и папоротник, наоборот, превосходно себя «чувствуют» в этих местах. Если ольха, клен, плакучая ива, береза — все склонились в одну сторону, это признак того, что поблизости находится водяная жила. В местах высокого стояния вод могут попадаться одиночные дубы. Они растут как бы на пересечении водяных жил.

Старые крестьяне замечали, что лошади и собаки, испытывая жажду, начинают копать землю там, где чувствуют воду. Над водяными жилами избегает лежать собака, а вот кошка делает наоборот. Курица не сядет и не станет нести яйца в том месте, где высоко стоят воды, гуси же как раз несут яйца на пересечении водяных жил.

Рыжие муравьи сооружают свои кучи с учетом расположения воды: где близка, там их нет. Столбы комаров и мошки после захода солнца показывают, что здесь, под землей, должна быть вода. Туман, стелющийся после захода солнца, — тоже примета близкого стояния грунтовых вод в этом месте. Родники, мокрые места, а зимой наледи и проталины в снежном покрове подсказывают о выходе к поверхности земли водоносного горизонта.

Старым средством при отыскании подземных вод можно назвать еще комок обезжиренной шерсти. Его кладут на ночь на землю и накрывают горшком или сковородкой. В том месте, где есть вода, он пропитается влагой. При разведке мест для рытья колодца исстари пользуются искательной лозой. В наставлении по рудному делу, изданному в 1760 г., о применении искательной лозы сказано так: «обрезают или отламывают развилинки лоз от орешника такою толщиною, каковы годовые от ростки бывают. Потом, взяв за оба края сих развилинок, обращают третий конец вверху так, чтобы ладонь к лицу, а верхняя часть ладони к земле обращены были. Где лоза в руках подвинется, и верхним концом склонится, в таком месте водяные ключи и стоящие воды имеются. Некоторые вместо ореховой лозы употребляют дубовую, сосновую или другого дерева».

В наше время все чаще вместо лозы используют специальные проволочные рамки П-образной или Г-образной формы. Они намного чувствительнее свежесрезанной лозы из ивы или орешника. действие лозы и рамок-индикаторов в руках натренированного человека теперь называют биолокационным эффектом.

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