КОНФЛИКТ МЕЖГРУППОВОЙ

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КОНФЛИКТ МЕЖГРУППОВОЙ — тип конфликтов, в котором в качестве субъектов взаимодействия выступают не отдельные индивиды, а группы. Можно говорить о конфликтах между малыми, большими (в частности, религиозными, классовыми, этническими и др.), формальными, неформальными и т. п. группами. В строгом смысле к К. м. относятся и те конфликты между отдельными людьми, в которых они выступают как представители и выразители позиций своих групп.
В классических экспериментах М. Шерифа и др. (1953, 1955) показано, что само сосуществование различных социальных группировок не обязательно приводит к развитию конфликтных отношений между ними. Групповые стереотипы (гетеростереотипы и автостереотипы), воспринимаемые членами групп отличия своей и чужой групп (в т. ч. социальные, культурные, внешние физические и др. отличия) чаще всего не являются необходимым условием К. м., но могут существенно усиливать уже возникшую враждебность (см. Социальный стереотип). Однако высказано (и эмпирически подкреплено) против. мнение: уже сам факт номинального разделения людей на группы (даже при отсутствии более или менее тесных отношений между ними) может порождать, с одной стороны, внутригрупповой фаворитизм и, с др. — дискриминацию по отношению к членам чужой группы (Г. Тэджфел и др.). Эта т. зр. корреспондирует с более ранним пониманием «природной» неизбежности К. м., высказанным У. Самнером и З. Фрейдом: враждебность по отношению к чужой группе и ее представителям — ведущее средство сохранения и поддержания внутренней сплоченности, увеличения силы притяжения внутри собственной группы.
Достаточно четко определились 3 основные группы подходов к пониманию К. м. (они объединены общей идеей, а не организованной «школой»): мотивационный, ситуационный и когнитивный. В рамках мотивационного подхода (З. Фрейд, Л. Берковиц, М. Дойч, Г. Тэджфел и др.) К. м. понимается как следствие внутренних проблем групп, использующих внешний конфликт для разрешения своих внутренних проблем. Ситуационный подход (М. Шериф, Р. Блейк и др.) акцентирует усилия в направлении поиска факторов, детерминирующих К. м., и обнаруживает их в особенностях ситуации — и в первую очередь — в столкновении реальных интересов групп. Когнитивный подход подчеркивает роль когнитивных установок групп в отношении друг друга: межгрупповая враждебность возможна и без противоречия интересов, но при условии негативных аттитюдов (см. Предрассудок). Роль установок м. б. двоякой: как подчеркивающей (при конкуренции), так и затушевывающей (при кооперации) воспринимаемые различия между группами.
Предприняты попытки связать остроту и длительность К. м. с особенностями групп — субъектов конфликта. По мнению нем. философа и социолога Георга Зиммеля (1858-1918), острота К. м. повышается при большей эмоциональной сплоченности групп, их организованности, включенности в широкую социальную структуру (что повышает их контактность и снижает изолированность) и большей степени «доконфликтного» согласия между ними. Помимо того, К, м. отличается большей остротой, если он становится «самоцелью» и воспринимается участниками как выходящий за рамки их индивидуальных целей. (И. А. Мещерякова.)
Добавление ред.: Позитивные функции К. м. описаны амер. психологом и социологом Льюисом Козером, который в 1950-х гг. систематизировал взгляды Г. Зиммеля. Среди них:
1. Группообразование, установление и поддержание нормативных и физических границ групп: широко известно утверждение, что дружить легче против кого-то; несомненно, внешний враг может помочь усилению консолидации между членами группы (этот механизм неоднократно использовался в истории политики).
2. Установление и поддержание относительно стабильной структуры внутригрупповых и межгрупповых отношений, интеграция и идентификация, социализация и адаптация как индивидов, так и групп: позитивным выходом из К. м. может стать более отчетливый свод правил межгруппового взаимодействия, демаркация границ между группами или подразделениями, сферами их компетенции и ответственности.
3. Получение информации об окружающей социальной среде: К. м. может использоваться как инструмент для более глубокого понимания ситуации; в аналогичной функции применяется т. н. «разведка боем».
4. Создание и поддержание баланса сил и, в частности, власти, социальный контроль: К. м. может привести к перераспределению власти, законодательной констатации новых реалий, нового баланса сил, более адекватно отвечающего сложившейся ситуации.
5. Нормотворчество: при позитивном разрешении К. м. фиксируются новые правила взаимоотношений между субъектами К. м. и между третьими силами, чьи интересы также фигурировали в его ходе.
6. Создание новых социальных институтов: К. м. — один из «родоначальников» новых организаций и направлений деятельности; большое число организаций возникло в процессе и в результате отделения групп сотрудников от материнской организации; именно К. м. позволил им сплотиться и осознать отличия своих интересов от интересов их прежних сослуживцев и руководителей.
7. Интенсификация рефлексии: в процессе К. м. активизируются личностные и интеллектуальные силы оппонентов; они могут привести к новым, неординарным решениям; некоторые решения, для кристаллизации которых в обычных условиях потребовались бы годы, достигают своей зрелости за гораздо более короткие интервалы времени.
8. Качественные преобразования: в результате разрешения К. м. могут возникать новые структуры, не имевшие предшественников в доконфликтной ситуации; это касается как социальных и организационных систем, так и технических решений; то же можно сказать о многих образцах социальной и материальной жизни. (Е. Б. Моргунов.)

Источник: Б.Г. Мещеряков, В.П. Зинченко «Большой психологический словарь»

 

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