КОНТЕНТ-АНАЛИЗ

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КОНТЕНТ-АНАЛИЗ (англ. content analysis; от content — содержание) — формализованный метод изучения текстовой и графической информации, заключающийся в переводе изучаемой информации в количественные показатели и ее статистической обработке. Характеризуется большой строгостью, систематичностью. Объектом К.-а. м. б. содержание различных печатных изданий, радио- и телепередач, кинофильмов, рекламных сообщений, документов, публичных выступлений, материалов анкет. Основные процедуры К.-а. были разработаны амер. социологами Х. Лассуэллом и Б. Берелсоном. К ним относятся:
1. Выявление смысловых единиц анализа, которыми могут служить: а) понятия, выраженные в отдельных терминах; б) темы, выраженные в целых смысловых абзацах, частях текстов, статьях, радиопередачах и т. п.; в) имена, фамилии людей; г) события, факты и т. п.; д) смысл апелляций к потенциальному адресату. Единицы К.-а. выделяются в зависимости от содержания, целей, задач и гипотез конкретного исследования.
2. Выделение единиц счета, которые могут совпадать либо не совпадать с единицами анализа. В 1-м случае процедура сводится к подсчету частоты упоминания выделенной смысловой единицы, во 2-м — исследователь на основе анализируемого материала и здравого смысла сам выдвигает единицы счета, которыми м. б.: а) физическая протяженность текстов; б) площадь текста, заполненная смысловыми единицами; в) число строк (абзацев, знаков, колонок текста); г) длительность трансляции по радио или ТВ; д) метраж пленки при аудио- и видеозаписях, е) количество рисунков с определенным содержанием, сюжетом и пр.
3. Процедура подсчета в общем виде сходна со стандартными приемами классификации по выделенным группировкам. Применяется составление специальных таблиц, применение компьютерных программ, специальных формул (напр., «формула оценки удельного веса смысловых категорий в общем объеме текста»), статистические расчеты понятности и аттрактивности текста.
Метод К.-а. широко применяется как вспомогательное средство в психологии, социологии и др. науках при анализе ответов на открытые вопросы анкет, материалов наблюдений, результатов психологического тестирования (в частности, в проективных методиках), для анализа результатов в методе фокус-групп. Подобные методы используются также в исследованиях массовых коммуникаций, в маркетинговых и многих др. исследованиях. К.-а. м. б. использован для исследования большей части документальных источников, однако лучше всего он работает при относительно большом количестве однопорядковых данных. (А. Б. Мещеряков.)

Источник: Б.Г. Мещеряков, В.П. Зинченко «Большой психологический словарь»

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