Выяснена причина повышенной импульсивности в поведении людей


Ученые показали, что повышенная импульсивность в поведении людей возникает в результате пониженной активности рецепторов гормона дофамина в полосатом теле головного мозга, что приводит к его избыточному выделению клетками головного мозга и может быть связано с предрасположенностью людей к наркотикам, табаку и алкоголю, сообщает РИА «Новости» со ссылкой на публикацию в журнале Science.

Авторы исследования — группа ученых под руководством Джошуа Бакхольца из Университета Вандербилта в США — в своей работе отталкивалась от предположения, что различия в проявляемой различными людьми импульсивности в поведении каким-то образом связаны с работой гормона дофамина в мозге. Этот гормон выполняет роль нейромедиатора, заставляя нейроны активизироваться и передавать электрические импульсы.

Для того, чтобы проверить эту гипотезу, исследователи провели работу с 32 добровольцами — физически и психически здоровыми людьми. Каждый из них прошел тест на склонность к импульсивному поведению по так называемой шкале импульсивности Барратта. В ходе эксперимента его участники принимали небольшое количество стимулятора — декстроамфетамина, после чего ученые с помощью томографии мозга могли отследить количество вырабатываемого их мозгом дофамина в ответ на прием стимулятора, а также степень усваивания выделившегося гормона специальными дофаминовыми рецепторами.

Ученые показали, что склонность к импульсивному поведению в их исследовании оказывалась прямо пропорциональна количеству вырабатываемого мозгом дофамина и обратно пропорциональна степени усваивания его дофаминовыми рецепторами D2.

Исследователи также показали, что повышенное выделение дофамина в головном мозге добровольцев сопровождалось повышенным желанием повторить эксперимент и получить новую порцию стимулятора.

Бакхольц и его группа полагают, что первопричиной повышенной импульсивности поведения является именно сниженная активность рецепторов D2 в так называемом полосатом теле головного мозга людей. Она заставляет специально предназначенные для этого клетки вырабатывать больше дофамина в головном мозге, чем у более уравновешенных людей.

«Эта работа позволяет нам «нащупать» нейробиологическую связь между импульсивностью в поведении человека и его предрасположенностью к злоупотреблению наркотиками или другими веществами», — пишут авторы в своей статье.



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